What is energy for adaptation, and does it support sustainable development?

What is energy for adaptation, and does it support sustainable development?

Building a Framework to Understand the Energy Needs of Adaptation
Marinella Davide, Enrica De Cian and Alexis Bernigaud
Sustainability 2019 , 11(15), 4085 - July 2019

At the basis of our research project, it is essential that we understand and define thoroughly what is Energy for Adaptation. It is as well essential that we comprehend what are the implications of these different possible measures for sustainable development.

We therefore drafted a framework to define Energy for Adaptation – summarized in the diagram below – based on the Nationally Determined Contributions submitted within the Paris agreement. We finally linked the resulting options to the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

In the 138 NDCs including adaptation strategies, we identified 988 measures, grouped in 20 different types of available options. If related to energy use, each of these measures may first be classified as: Energy increasing or Energy Decreasing, and labelled according to the different sections of the NDCs we found them: Adaptation, Mitigation, or both. Use the pagination button to display the different measures in the table below.

Type of measureAdaptation measureEnergy increasing or Energy saving?Number of time in NDCs
WaterDesalinationEnergy increasing24
WaterWater distributionEnergy increasing13
WaterWastewater reuseEnergy increasing44
WaterWater conservationEnergy saving82
WaterWater harvestingEnergy saving50
WaterIrrigation efficiencyEnergy saving34
WaterIrrigationEnergy increasing40
Food Food storageEnergy increasing14
FoodLivestockEnergy increasing4
InfrastructureElectrificationEnergy increasing46
InfrastructureTransportEnergy increasing95
InfrastructureMultipurpose
Dams
Energy increasing28
Living ConditionsBuildingsEnergy saving58
Energy EfficiencyEnergy efficiencyEnergy saving116
HealthEarly Warning SystemsEnergy increasing67
HealthMedical servicesEnergy increasing31
Information and EducationInfo and EduEnergy saving80
Renewable energyRenewablesRenewables117
Living ConditionsHeating and CoolingEnergy increasing20
Living ConditionsWater heatingEnergy increasing19

Each of the countries analysed plan to implement one or several of these 20 adaptation measures: use the search box to look up countries or digit a measure and see which countries are planning to implement it.

countryiso3Adaptation Measures
AfghanistanAFGIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
AlgeriaDZAWater recycling and reuse, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
AngolaAGOWater conservation, Electrification, Buildings, Early WS, Renewable energy
Antigua and Barbuda ATGDesalination (R), Water distribution (R), Food storage, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
ArgentinaARGEarly WS, Information and education
ArmeniaARMWater recycling and reuse, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education
Azerbaijan AZETransport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
BahamasBHSWater conservation, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
BangladeshBGDIrrigation (R), Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling (R), Water heating (R), Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
BarbadosBRBTransport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
BelarusBLR
BelizeBLZWater conservation, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
BeninBENIrrigation, Water conservation, Heating/Cooling, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS
BhutanBTNIrrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Food storage, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education
BoliviaBOLIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Transport
BotswanaBWAWater harvesting
BrazilBRAEnergy efficiency, Renewable energy
BruneiBRNEnergy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
Burkina FasoBFAIrrigation, Water conservation, Irrigation efficiency, Food storage, Dams, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
BurundiBDIIrrigation, Water conservation, Irrigation efficiency, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Cabo VerdeCPVDesalination, Water distribution (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Water heating (R), Electrification, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
CambodiaKHMIrrigation (R), Irrigation, Water recycling and reuse, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
CameroonCMRWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Central African RepublicCAFHeating/Cooling (R), Dams, Electrification, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
ChadTCDIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Food storage, Information and education, Renewable energy
ChileCHLRenewable energy
ChinaCHNDesalination, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
ColombiaCOLWater conservation, Information and education
ComorosCOMWater conservation, Irrigation efficiency, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
CongoCOGWater conservation, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Cook IslandsCOKTransport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
Costa RicaCRITransport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
Ivory CoastCIVIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Food storage, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
CubaCUBEnergy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
Democratic Republic of the CongoCODElectrification, Transport, Renewable energy
DjiboutiDJIDesalination (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
DominicaDMAElectrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Dominican RepublicDOMWater conservation, Early WS, Information and education
EcuadorECUWater conservation, Water harvesting, Dams, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
EgyptEGYDesalination, Irrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Water heating (R), Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
El SalvadorSLVWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Equatorial GuineaGNQWater conservation, Electrification, Transport, Early WS, Renewable energy
EritreaERIDesalination, Water distribution (R), Irrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Heating/Cooling, Dams, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
EthiopiaETHWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Food storage, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
FijiFJIDams, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
GabonGABWater recycling and reuse, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
GambiaGMBWater distribution (R), Irrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Water heating (R), Food storage, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Georgia GEOIrrigation efficiency, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education
GhanaGHAIrrigation (R), Water conservation, Heating/Cooling (R), Food storage, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
GrenadaGRDWater harvesting, Water heating (R), Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
GuatemalaGTMWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
GuineaGINIrrigation, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
Guinea-BissauGNB
GuyanaGUYBuildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
HaitiHTIDesalination (R), Water conservation, Water harvesting, Food storage, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
HondurasHNDIrrigation efficiency, Food storage, Dams
IndiaINDIrrigation (R), Water conservation, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
IndonesiaIDNWater recycling and reuse, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
IranIRNDesalination, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
IraqIRQIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Electrification, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
IsraelISRDesalination, Water heating (R), Transport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
JamaicaJAMTransport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
JordanJORDesalination, Water distribution (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling (R), Water heating (R), Livestock, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
KenyaKENTransport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Bahrain BHRWater conservation, Transport, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
KiribatiKIRDesalination (R), Water conservation, Water harvesting, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
KuwaitKWTWater conservation, Heating/Cooling, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
KyrgyzstanKGZ
LaosLAOIrrigation, Water conservation, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
LebanonLBNIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling, Dams, Transport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
LesothoLSOIrrigation, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling, Livestock, Food storage, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
LiberiaLBRIrrigation, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
MadagascarMDGWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
MalawiMWIIrrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Water heating (R), Dams, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
MalaysiaMYSIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency
MaldivesMDVDesalination, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Food storage, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education
MaliMLIWater distribution (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Marshall IslandsMHLHeating/Cooling (R), Water heating (R), Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
MauritaniaMRTDesalination, Water distribution (R), Water recycling and reuse, Electrification
MauritiusMUSDesalination, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
MexicoMEXIrrigation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Livestock, Transport, Early WS
MonacoMCOTransport, Energy efficiency
MongoliaMNGIrrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Dams, Transport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
MoroccoMARDesalination, Irrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Water heating (R), Dams, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
MozambiqueMOZWater conservation, Early WS, Information and education
MyanmarMMRWater conservation, Irrigation efficiency, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
NamibiaNAMWater conservation, Water harvesting, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
NauruNRUEnergy efficiency, Renewable energy
NepalNPLWater distribution (R), Water harvesting, Heating/Cooling (R), Water heating (R), Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
NigerNERWater distribution (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
NigeriaNGAWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
NiueNIUWater conservation, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
OmanOMNTransport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
PakistanPAKIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Heating/Cooling, Water heating , Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Papua New GuineaPNGTransport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
ParaguayPRYIrrigation efficiency, Transport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
PeruPERMedical services
PhilippinesPHLWater conservation, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
QatarQATDesalination (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
South KoreaKORTransport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
MoldovaMDAIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling, Livestock, Dams, Transport, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
RwandaRWAIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Saint KittsKNADesalination, Water distribution (R), Water conservation, Water harvesting, Dams, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Saint LuciaLCAIrrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Saint VincentVCTDesalination (R), Water harvesting, Transport, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
SamoaWSMEnergy efficiency, Renewable energy
Sao Tome and PrincipeSTPRenewable energy
Saudi ArabiaSAUIrrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Dams, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
SenegalSENWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Food storage, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
SerbiaSRB
SeychellesSYCWater conservation, Water harvesting, Heating/Cooling, Water heating (R), Water heating , Dams, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Sierra LeoneSLEDams, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
SingaporeSGPDesalination, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Transport, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
Solomon IslandsSLBHeating/Cooling (R), Water heating (R), Information and education, Renewable energy
SomaliaSOMWater distribution (R), Irrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Dams, Electrification, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
South AfricaZAFWater conservation, Water heating (R), Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
South SudanSSDIrrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
Sri LankaLKADesalination, Irrigation, Water conservation, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
SudanSDNWater conservation, Water harvesting, Dams, Electrification, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
SurinameSURWater conservation, Water harvesting, Dams, Electrification, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
SwazilandSWZWater distribution (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
TajikistanTJKIrrigation (R), Water conservation, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
ThailandTHAWater conservation, Transport, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
TogoTGOWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Dams, Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
TongaTONIrrigation (R), Electrification, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
TunisiaTUNDesalination (R), Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water heating (R), Energy efficiency, Early WS, Renewable energy
TurkmenistanTKMDesalination, Irrigation, Water harvesting, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy
UgandaUGAIrrigation (R), Water distribution (R), Water conservation, Water harvesting, Food storage, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
UkraineUKREnergy efficiency, Renewable energy
United Arab EmiratesAREDesalination, Desalination (R), Water conservation, Heating/Cooling, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
TanzaniaTZAWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
UruguayURYWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Heating/Cooling (R), Heating/Cooling, Water heating (R), Water heating , Dams, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
VanuatuVUTWater conservation, Electrification, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
VenezuelaVENWater conservation, Water harvesting, Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy
VietnamVNMWater conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Irrigation efficiency, Transport, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
YemenYEMDesalination (R), Irrigation (R), Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Heating/Cooling (R), Water heating (R), Electrification, Transport, Medical services, Buildings, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
ZambiaZMBIrrigation (R), Irrigation, Water conservation, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation efficiency, Dams, Electrification, Medical services, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy
ZimbabweZWEWater conservation, Water harvesting, Water heating (R), Dams, Electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Early WS, Information and education, Renewable energy

Now you may want to see which SDG is supported by the adaptation measures identified or to which Goal does a particular adaptation measure contributes. To retrieve this information, use the pagination button in the table below, or digit in the search box the Goal or the measure you are interested in.

SDG GoalsEnergy for Adaptation optionsTotal
Goal 01. End poverty in all its forms everywhereWater distribution & usage (R), Water harvesting, Heating/cooling (R), Water heating (R), Heating/cooling, Water heating, Rural electrification, Medical services, Building standards, Energy efficiency, Early warning systems, Renewable energy12
Goal 02. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agricultureDesalination, Desalination (R), Irrigation (R), Irrigation, Water conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation Efficiency , Livestock, Multipurpose dams, Rural electrification, Food storage, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy14
Goal 03. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all agesWater distribution & usage (R), Water recycling and reuse, Heating/cooling (R), Heating/cooling, Livestock, Rural electrification, Medical services, Food storage, Transport, Building standards, Energy efficiency, Early warning systems, Information and education, Renewable energy14
Goal 04. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for allWater distribution & usage (R), Heating/cooling (R), Water heating (R), Heating/cooling, Water heating, Rural electrification, Transport, Building standards, Information and education, Renewable energy10
Goal 05. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girlsWater distribution & usage (R), Water conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water harvesting, Rural electrification, Medical services, Transport, Renewable energy7
Goal 06. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for allDesalination, Desalination (R), Water distribution & usage (R), Water conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation Efficiency , Multipurpose dams, Rural electrification, Information and education, Renewable energy11
Goal 07. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for allDesalination (R), Irrigation (R), Water distribution & usage (R), Heating/cooling (R), Water heating (R), Rural electrification, Transport, Building standards, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy10
Goal 08. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for allIrrigation (R), Irrigation, Water conservation & improved water use efficiency, Heating/cooling (R), Heating/cooling, Multipurpose dams, Rural electrification, Building standards, Energy efficiency, Early warning systems, Information and education, Renewable energy12
Goal 09. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovationDesalination, Desalination (R), Irrigation (R), Irrigation, Irrigation Efficiency , Multipurpose dams, Rural electrification, Transport, Building standards, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy11
Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countriesWater distribution & usage (R), Water conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water harvesting, Rural electrification, Transport, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy7
Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainableWater distribution & usage (R), Water recycling and reuse, Heating/cooling (R), Water heating (R), Heating/cooling, Water heating, Multipurpose dams, Rural electrification, Medical services, Transport, Building standards, Energy efficiency, Early warning systems, Information and education, Renewable energy15
Goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patternsWater conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Food storage, Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy7
Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts0
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable developmentWater conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water recycling and reuse, Water harvesting, Irrigation Efficiency , Energy efficiency, Information and education, Renewable energy7
Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combatĀ desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity lossWater conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water harvesting, Irrigation Efficiency , Rural electrification, Energy efficiency5
Goal 16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all andĀ build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levelsIrrigation (R), Irrigation, Water conservation & improved water use efficiency, Water harvesting, Irrigation Efficiency , Multipurpose dams, Rural electrification, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy9
Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for SustainableĀ Development FinanceRural electrification, Energy efficiency, Renewable energy3

All this information is accessible as an excel file in the supplementary material of the paper published in Sustainability 2019.